Kyoto-era carbon projects, methods and units are not the only potential hangover from commercial systems. The protocol also allowed countries that were overser to their emission budgets to sell “allocated quantity units” (AAUs) for another country`s targets. Vulnerable nations, such as small island states, want automatic cancellation to guarantee OMGE and a guaranteed share of revenues, both for the markets referred to in Article 6.2 and article 6.4. The EU and the US are focusing on strict rules, which means that carbon markets can operate seamlessly. In response to the IETA study on potential trade savings, Gilles Dufrasne, of the NGO Carbon Market Watch, told Carbon Brief that he considered it “interesting from a purely theoretical point of view, but did not reflect the actual use and potential impact of carbon markets”. A 2015 report showed that an estimated 80% of projects under the Kyoto Emissions Trading Scheme were of low environmental quality and that the scheme had actually increased emissions by around 600 million tonnes. They consider that it is achieved only if a fixed share of the emission credits referred to in Article 6 is set aside and is not used by any Party to achieve its climate objectives. These credits would be eliminated or set aside for the benefit of the global atmosphere as a whole and not for a state and its NDC. However, it was difficult to determine how this would work in practice. Some countries might choose to use national carbon taxes, while others might create national cap-and-trade systems. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement creates a platform for an international carbon market and an approach to convergence between internal market approaches. Within a common framework, countries could use the emission reductions of these market-based mechanisms to achieve their own NDC targets or to trade them with other countries. For example, India could design a national trading system that allows micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (KKMU) to benefit from the implementation of industrial energy efficiency improvements.

Article 6.4 establishes a mechanism to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development under the supervision of a central body of the United Nations. Public and private bodies may participate in this mechanism if they have been approved by a country. .